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India's Mineral Sector


India is endowed with significant mineral resources. India produces 89 minerals out of  which 4 are fuel minerals, 11 metallic, 52 non-metallic and 22 minor minerals.

The total value of mineral production (excluding atomic minerals was Rs. 404768 million in 1998-99. The entire metallic production is accounted for by iron-ore, copper-ore, chromite and/or zinc concentrates, gold, manganese ore, bauxite, lead concentrates, and silver. Amongst the non-metallic minerals, 92 percent of the aggregate value is shared by limestone, magnesite, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum, apatite & phosphorite, steatite and fluorite.


INDIA’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE WORLD’S MINERAL PRODUCTION

ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT - Ministry of Mines

CONTRIBUTION OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR

CONTRIBUTION OF OTHER GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS



INDIA’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE WORLD’S MINERAL PRODUCTION

India is the world’s largest producer of mica blocks and mica splittings. With the recent spurt in world demand for chromite, India has stepped up its production to reach the third rank among the chromite producers of the world.

Besides, India ranks 3rd in production of coal & lignite and barytes, 4th in iron ore, 6th in bauxite and manganese ore, 10 in aluminium and 11th in crude steel in the World.

Life Indices: Some Important Minerals

S.No.

Mineral/Ore/Metal Recoverable reserves as on 1.1.1985 Depletion during 1985-97 Recoverable Reserves as on 1.1.1997 Projected production during 1996-97 Balance life at 1996-97 level of production
. .

(m.tonnes)

(m.tonnes)

(m.tonnes)

(m.tonnes)

(years)++

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

Crude oil (as on1.1.91)

993.00

230.00

763.00

50.00

15

2

Natural Gas (B.Cu.M.) (as on 1.4.90)

858.00

161.00

697.00

30.00

23

3

Coal (as on 1.1.91) . . . . .

I

Coking

8507.00

201.00

8306.00

39.00

213

II

Non Coking

60346.00

1397.00

58949.00

269.00

219

4

Bauxite

2333.00

80.00

2253.00

8.00

282

5

Copper metal (as on 31.3.88)

3.95

0.43

3.52

0.06

64

6

Lead metal (as on 1.1.89)

1.93

0.56

1.37

0.10

14

7

Zinc metal (as on 1.1.89)

7.00

1.10

5.90

0.15

38

8

Gold (as on 1.1.89)

103000.00

16727.00

86273.00

1850.00

47

9

Iron ore

10440.00

686.00

9754.00

72.00

135

10

Chromite Ore

139.00

15.00

124.00

2.40

52

11

Magnesite

222.00

6.70

215.30

0.73

295

12

Manganese Ore

83.17

17.65

65.52

1.80

36

13

Limestone

69353.00

876.00

68477.00

101.00

678

14

Rock Phosphate High grade

14.78

8.79

5.99

0.72

8

15

Sillimanite

I

Masslve

0.50

0.35

54.25

0.017

3191

II

Beach sand

54.10

16

Kyanite

1.55

0.51

1.04

0.06

19

17

Dolomite (Usable Grade)

4608.00

32.00

4576.00

3.20

1430

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ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT -Department of Mines

The Ministry of Mines is responsible for the survey and exploration of all minerals, other than natural gas, petroleum, and atomic minerals; for mining and metallurgy of non-ferrous metals like aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, gold, nickel, etc., and for the administration of the Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act, 1957, in respect of all mines and minerals, other than coal, natural gas, petroleum, and atomic minerals.

The following organisations operate under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Mines:


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CONTRIBUTION OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR

The public sector contributes over 88 percent of the total value of mineral production.

Public sector enterprises like the National Mineral Development Corporation, Kudremukh Iron Ore company, Steel Authority of India Limited and Orissa Mining Corporation dominate the iron ore sector.

Two Public sector enterprises - National Aluminum Company and Bharat Aluminum Company, account for over 66 percent of alumunium production in India. Hindustan copper Limited predominates the copper ore mining sector, zinc-lead ore mining and processing is dominated by Hindustan Zinc Limited.

Bharat Gold Mines, a public enterprises of the Government of India and Hutti Gold Mines Limited (a Government of Karnataka undertaking), are engaged in the mining of gold. Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals Limited and Andhra Pradesh Mining Development corporation predominate the mining of rock phosphate and barytes respectively.
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CONTRIBUTION OF OTHER GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS

Geological Survey of India (GSI)

The GSI is the principal agency responsible for the assessment of geological and regional mineral resources of the country. GSI was established in 1851 and is one of India’s oldest investigative agencies in the field of earth sciences. Its areas of operation encompass scientific surveys and research, for locating mineral resources. GSI operates through six regional offices and four specialized wings - marine, coal geophysics, airborne surveys and training.

The GSI has to its credit geological mapping, covering an area of approximately 3.146 million sq.km, or 94 percent of the area of India. The maps are on a 1:63,360/ 1:50,000 scale, the data having been synthesized to produce 1:2,000,000 scale geological maps of India, which have been correlated with the global set up as per international standards. The GSI is also actively involved in the research and development of mapping and exploration techniques. It has set up a chain of modern petrological paleontological, chemical, mineralogical, geochronological, geotechnical and geophysical laboratories in its different operational bases, and offers its facilities and services on payment.

Geological maps and data are available with GSI on a commercial basis.

Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM)

IBM is the principal government agency responsible for compiling exploration data and mineral maps and for providing access to the latest information is respect of mineral resources in the country. IBM has both regulatory as well as service functions.

IBM offers technical expertise and proven experience in the fields of geology, mine planning and feasibility studies. The geological services of IBM include survey and preparation of mine plans, preparation of geological plans, preliminary geological appraisal of mineral properties, including the formulation of an initial scheme of detailed exploration with estimate of cost and preliminary reconnaissance, quick survey to determinate potential areas out of large properties, etc.

IBM’s technical consultancy services include the preparation of techno-economic feasibility reports, evaluation of feasibility reports prepared by other consultants and organisations etc., production planning and grade control in working mines, evolution of flowcharts for mineral benefaction and agglomeration to scale up to large commercial plants and engineering design data for commercial plants.

Besides these technical consultancy services, IBM also performs regulatory functions, namely:- enforcement of Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act, Mineral Concession Rules, Mineral Conservation and Development Rules and compliance with Environmental Protection Act.

IBM disseminates statistical information on mines, minerals, metals and mineral based industries through its various publications which are available for sale on commercial basis.

Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited (MECL)

MECL is a public sector company, which undertakes detailed exploration of various minerals/ores by drilling, and exploratory mining. It is also engaged in proving the existence of reserves for their eventual exploitation. Exploration is taken up both on a promotional basis on behalf of the Government of India and on contractual basis for other agencies.
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