|The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation Act, 1957,
('MMDR') and the Mines Act, 1952, together with the rules and regulations framed under
them, constitute the basic laws governing the mining sector in India.
The relevant rules in force under the MMDR Act, are the Mineral Concession Rules,
1960, and the Mineral Conservation and Development Rules, 1988. The health and safety of
the workers is governed by the Mines Rules, 1955 created under the jurisdiction of the
Mines Act, 1952.
The Mineral Concession Rules, 1960 outline the procedures and conditions
for obtaining a Prospecting Licence or Mining Lease. The Mineral Conservation and
Development Rules, 1988 lays down guidelines for ensuring mining on a scientific basis,
while at the same time, conserving the environment. The provisions of Mineral Concession
Rules and Mineral Conservation and Development Rules are, however, not applicable to coal,
atomic minerals and minor minerals. The minor minerals are separately notified and come
under the purview of the State Governments. The State Governments have for this purpose
formulated the Minor Mineral Concession Rules.