Government of India
Ministry of Environment & Forest
Environmental Impact Assessment of Development Projects
New Delhi, the 27th January, 1994
1. S.O.60(E) Whereas a notification under clause (a) of sub-rule (3) of rule 5
of the Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 inviting objections from the public within
sixty days from the date of publication of the said notification, against the intention of
the Central Government to impose restrictions and prohibitions on the expansion and
modernisation of any activity or new projects being undertaken in any part of India unless
environmental clearance has been accorded by the Central Government or the State
Government in accordance with the procedure specified in that notification was published
as S.O.No. 80(E) dated 28th January, 1993;
And whereas all objections received have been duly considered;
Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) and clause (v)
of sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986)
read with clause (d) of sub-rule (3) of rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules,
1986, the Central Government hereby directs that on and from the date of publication of
this notification in the Official Gazette expansion or modernisation of any activity (if
pollution load is to exceed the existing one) or a new project listed in Schedule I of
this notification shall not be undertaken in any part of India unless it has been accorded
environmental clearance by the Central Government in accordance with the procedure
hereinafter specified in this notification.
2. Requirements and procedure for seeking environmental clearance of projects :
I.(a) Any person who desires to undertake any new project or the expansion or
modernisation of any existing industry or project listed in Schedule I shall submit an
application to the Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi.
The application shall be made in the proforma specified in Schedule II of this
notification and shall be accompanied by a project report which shall, inter alia, include
an Environmental Impact Assessment Report/Environment Management Plan and details of
public hearing as specified in Schedule IV prepared in accordance with the guidelines
issued by the Central Government in the Ministry of Environment and Forests from time to
(b) Cases rejected due to submission of insufficient or inadequate
data and plans may be reviewed as and when submitted with complete data and plans.
Submission of incomplete data or plans for the second time would itself be a sufficient
reason for the Impact Assessment Agency to reject the case summarily.
II. In case of the following site specific projects :
(b) pit-head thermal power stations;
(c) hydro-power, major irrigation projects and/or their combination including
(d) ports and harbours (excluding minor ports);
(e) prospecting and exploration of major minerals in areas above 500
The project authorities will intimate the location of the project site to the Central
Government in the Ministry of Environment and Forests while initiating any investigation
and surveys. The Central Government in the Ministry of Environment and Forests will convey
a decision regarding suitability or otherwise of the proposed site within a maximum period
of thirty days. The said site clearance shall be granted for a sanctioned capacity and
shall be valid for a period of five years for commencing the construction, operation or
III.(a) The reports submitted with the application shall be evaluated and
assessed by the Impact Assessment Agency and if deemed necessary it may consult a
Committee of Experts, having a composition as specified in Schedule-III of this
Notification. The Impact Assessment Agency (IAA) would be the Union Ministry of
Environment and Forests. The Committee of Experts mentioned above shall be constituted by
the IAA or such other body under the Central Government authorised by the IAA in this
(b) The said Committee of Experts shall have full right of entry and
inspection of the site or, as the case may be, factory premises at any time prior to,
during or after the commencement of the operations relating to the project.
(c) The Impact Assessment Agency shall prepare a set of recommendations based on
the technical assessment of documents and data furnished by the project authorities and
supplemented by data collected during visits of sites of factories, if undertaken and
details of public hearing.
The assessment shall be completed within a period of ninety days from receipt of the
requisite documents and data from the project authorities and completion of public hearing
and decision conveyed within thirty days thereafter.
The clearance granted shall be valid for a period of five years from commencement of
the construction or operation of the project.
No construction work, preliminary or otherwise, relating to the setting up of the
project may be undertaken till the environmental and/or site clearance is obtained.
IV. In order to enable the Impact Assessment Agency to monitor
effectively the implementation of the recommendations and conditions subject to which the
environmental clearance has been given, the project authorities concerned shall submit a
half-yearly report to the Impact Assessment Agency. Subject to the public interest, the
Impact Assessment Agency, shall make compliance reports publicly available.
V. If no comments from the Impact Assessment Agency are received
within the time limit, the project would be deemed to have been approved as proposed by
3. Nothing contained in this Notification shall apply to :
(a) any item falling under entry nos. 3, 18 and 20 of the Schedule-I
to be located or proposed to be located in the areas covered by the Notifications S.O.
No.102(E) dated 1st February, 1989; S.O. 114(E) dated 20th February,
1991 S.O. No.416(E) dated 20th June, 1991 and S.O. No.319(E) dated 7th
(b) any item falling under entry Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13,
14, 16, 17, 19, 21, 25 and 27 of Schedule-I if the investment is less that Rs.50 crores.
(c) Any item reserved for Small Scale Industrial sector with
investments less than Rs.1 crore.
4. Concealing factual data or submission of false, misleading data/reports,
decisions or recommendations would lead to the project being rejected. Approval, if
granted earlier on the basis of false data would also be revoked. Misleading and wrong
information will cover the following:
- False information.
- False data.
- Engineered reports.
- Concealing of factual data.
- False recommendations or decisions.
R. RAJAMANI, Secy.
(See paras 1 and 2)
LIST OF PROJECTS REQUIRING ENVIRONMENTAL
FROM THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
- Nuclear Power and related projects such as Heavy Water Plants, nuclear fuel complex,
- River Valley projects including hydel power, major irrigation and their combination
including flood control.
- Ports, Harbours, Airports (except minor ports and harbours).
- Petroleum Refineries including crude and product pipelines.
- Chemical Fertilisers (Nitrogenous and Phosphatic other than single superphosphate).
- Pesticides (Technical).
- Petrochemical complexes (Both Olefinic and Aromatic) and Petro-chemical intermediates
such as DMT, Caprolactam, LAB etc. and production of basic plastics such as LDPE, HDPE,
- Bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals.
- Exploration for oil and gas and their production, transportation and storage.
- Synthetic Rubber.
- Asbestos and Asbestos products.
- Hydrocyanic acid and its derivatives.
- (a) Primary metallurgical industries(such as production of Iron and Steel,
Aluminium, Copper, Zinc, Lead and Ferro Alloys).
- (b) Electric arc furnaces (Mini Steel Plants).
- Chlor-alkali industry.
- Integrated paint complex including manufacture of resins and basic raw materials
required in the manufacture of paints.
- Viscose Staple fibre and filament yarn.
- Storage batteries integrated with manufacture of oxides of lead and lead antimony alloy.
- All tourism projects between 200m-500 meters of High Tide Line or at locations with an
elevation of more than 1000 meters with investment of more than Rs.5 crores.
- Thermal Power plants.
- Mining projects (major minerals) with leases more than 5 hectares.
- Highway Projects except projects relating to improvement work including widening and
strengthening of roads with marginal land acquisition along the existing alignments
provided it does not pass through ecologically sensitive areas such as National Parks,
Sanctuaries, Tiger reserves, Reserve forests.
- Tarred Roads in Himalayas and/or Forest areas.
- Raw Skins and Hides.
- Pulp, paper and newsprint.
- Foundries (individual).
(See Sub-para 1(a) of Para 2)
1.(a) Name and Address of the project proposed :
- Location of the project :
- Name of the place :
- District, Tehsil :
- Latitude/Longitude :
- Nearest Airport/Railway Station :
(c) Alternate sites examined and the reasons for selecting the
proposed site :
(d) Does the site conform to stipulated land use as per local land use
2. Objectives of the project :
- Land Requirement :
- Agriculture Land :
- Forest land and Density of vegetation :
- Other (specify) :
(b) (i) Land use in the Catchment/ within 10 kms. radius of the proposed site :
(ii) Topography of the area indicating gradient, aspects and altitude:
(iii) Erodability classification of the proposed land:
(c) Pollution sources existing in 10 km. Radius and their impact on
quality of air, water & land :
(d) Distance of the nearest National Park/Sanctuary Biosphere Reserve/
Monuments/heritage site/Reserve Forest :
(e) Rehabilitation plan for quarries/borrow areas :
(f) Green belt plan :
(g) Compensatory afforestation plan :
4. Climate and Air Quality :
- (a) Windrose at site :
- (b) Max./Min./Mean annual temperature :
- (c) Frequency of inversion :
- (d) Frequency of cyclones/tornadoes/cloud burst :
- (e) Ambient air quality data :
- (f) Nature & concentration of emission of SPM, Gas (CO, CO2, Nox,CHn etc.) from the
5. Water balance :
- (a) Water balance at site :
- (b) Lean season water availability :
- (c) Source to be tapped with competing users (River, Lake, Ground, Public supply) :
- (d) Water quality :
- (e) Changes observed in quality and quantity of ground water in the last 15 years and
present charging and extraction details :
- (f) (i) Quantum of waste water to be released with treatment details :
- (ii) Quantum of quality of water in the receiving body before and after
disposal of solid waste :
- (iii) Quantum of waste water to be released on land and type of land :
- (g) (i) Details of reservoir water quality with necessary Catchment Treatment
- (ii) Command Area Development Plan :
6. Solid wastes :
- (a) Nature and quantity of solid wastes generated :
- (b) Solid waste disposal method :
7. Noise and Vibrations :
- (a) Sources of noise and vibrations :
- (b) Ambient noise level :
- (c) Noise and Vibration control measures proposed :
- (c) Subsidence problem if any with control measures :
8. Power requirement indicating source of supply : Complete environmental
details to be furnished separately, if captive power unit proposed :
9. Peak labour force to be deployed giving details of :
- Endemic health problems in the area due to waste water/air/soil borne diseases:
- Health care system existing and proposed :
- 10. (a) Number of village and population to be displaced :
- (b) Rehabilitation Master Plan :
11. Risk Assessment Report and Disaster Management Plan :
- 12. (a) Environmental Impact Assessment } Report prepared as per
- (b) Environment Management Plan } guidelines of MOEF
- (c) Detailed Feasibility Report } issued from time to time
- (d) Duly filled in questionnaire }
13. Details of Environmental Management Cell :
I hereby give an undertaking that the data and information given above are true to the
best of my knowledge and belief and I am aware that if any part of the data/information
submitted is found to be false or misleading at any stage, the project be rejected and the
clearance given, if any, to the project is likely to be revoked at our risk and cost.
- Signature of the applicant
- with name and full address
- Date :
- Place :
- Given under the seal of
- organisation on behalf of
- whom the applicant is signing
In respect to item for which data are not required or is not available as per the
declaration of project proponent, the project would be considered on that basis.
- (See Sub-para III(a) of Para 2)
- COMPOSITION OF THE EXPERT COMMITTEES FOR
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
1. The Committees will consist of experts in the following disciplines
- (i) Eco-System Management
- (ii) Air/Water Pollution Control
- (iii) Water Resource Management
- (iv) Flora/Fauna Conservation and Management
- (v) Land Use Planning
- (vi) Social Sciences/Rehabilitation
- (vii) Project Appraisal
- (viii) Ecology
- (ix) Environmental Health
- (x) Subject Area Specialists
- (xi) Representatives of NGOs/Persons Concerned With Environmental Issues.
2. The Chairman will be an outstanding and experienced ecologist or
environmentalist or technical professional with wide managerial experience.
3. The representative of IAA will act as Member-Secretary.
4. Chairman and members will serve in their individual capacities
except those specifically nominated as representatives.
5. The membership of a Committee shall not exceed 15.
- (See Sub-para I of Para 2)
PROCEDURE FOR PUBLIC HEARING
1. Process of Public Hearing :- Whoever apply for environmental clearance of
projects, shall submit to the concerned State Pollution Control Board twenty sets of the
following documents namely :-
- (i) An executive summary containing the salient features of the project both in English
as well as local language.
- (ii) Form XIII prescribed under Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1975
where discharge of sewage, trade effluents, treatment of water in any form, is required.
- (iii) Form I prescribed under Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Union Territory
Rules, 1983 where discharge of emissions are involved in any process, operation or
- (iv)Any other information or document which is necessary in the opinion of the Board for
their final disposal of the application.
2. Notice of Public Hearing :-
- (i) The State Pollution Control Board shall cause a notice for environmental public
hearing which shall be published in at least two newspapers widely circulated in the
region around the project, one of which shall be in the vernacular language of the
locality concerned. State Pollution Control Board shall mention the date, time and place
of public hearing. Suggestions, views, comments and objections of the public shall be
invited within thirty days from the date of publication of the notification.
- (ii) All persons including bona fide residents, environmental groups and others located
at the project site/sites of displacement/sites likely to be affected can participate in
the public hearing. They can also make oral/written suggestions to the State Pollution
Explanation : For the purpose of the paragraph person means
- (a) any person who is likely to be affected by the grant of environmental clearance;
- (b) any person who owns or has control over the project with respect to which an
application has been submitted for environmental clearance;
- (c) any association of persons whether incorporated or not likely to be affected by the
project and/or functioning in the field of environment;
- (d) any local authority within any part of whose local limits is within the
neighbourhood, wherein the project is proposed to be located.
3. Composition of public hearing panel :- The composition of Public Hearing
Panel may consist of the following namely :-
- (i) Representative of State Pollution Control Board;
- (ii) District Collector or his nominee;
- (iii) Representative of State Government dealing with the subject;
- (iv)Representative of Department of the State Government dealing with Environment;
- (v) Not more than three representatives of the local bodies such as Municipalities or
- (vi)Not more than three senior citizens of the area nominated by the District Collector.
4. Access to the Executive Summary :- The concerned persons shall be provided
access to the Executive Summary of the Project at the following places namely :-
- (i) District Collector Office;
- (ii) District Industry Centre;
- (iii) In the Office of the Chief Executive Officers of Zila Parishad or Commissioner of
the Municipal Corporation/Local body as the case may be;
- (iv)In the head office of the concerned State Pollution Control Board and its concerned
- (v)In the concerned Department of the State Government dealing with the subject of
- R.H.KHWAJA, Jt.Secy.
Foot Note :- The Principal notification was published vide No. S. O. 60(E) dated
27th January, 1994 and subsequently amended vide No. S. O. 356(E) dated 4th
- EXPLANATORY NOTE REGARDING THE IMPACT
- ASSESSMENT NOTIFICATION
- DATED 27TH JANUARY, 1994
1. Expansion and modernisation of existing projects
A project proponent is required to seek environmental clearance for a proposed
expansion/modernisation activity if the resultant pollution load is to exceed the existing
levels. The words "pollution Load" will in this context cover emissions, liquid
effluents and solid or semi-solid wastes generated. A project proponent may approach the
concerned State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) for certifying whether the proposed
modernisation/expansion activity as listed in Schedule-I to the notification is likely to
exceed the existing pollution load or not. If it is certified that no increase is likely
to occur in the existing pollution load due to the proposed expansion or modernisation,
the project proponent will not be required to seek environmental clearance, but a copy of
such certificate issued by the SPCB will have to be submitted to the Impact Assessment
Agency(IAA) for information. The IAA will however, reserve the right to review such cases
in the public interest if material facts justifying the need for such review come to light
2. Availability of Summary Feasibility Report, EIA/EMP Report etc. to concerned
parties or groups
The project proponent will have to submit an executive summary incorporating in brief
the essence of project details and findings of environmental impact assessment study which
could be made available to concerned parties or environmental groups on request.
3. Clarification about concerned parties or environmental groups
The concerned parties or environmental groups will be the bonafide residents located at
or around the project site or site of displacement or site of alleged adverse
4. Public Hearing
Public hearings could be called for in case of projects involving large displacement or
having severe environmental ramifications.
5. Requisite information required for site clearance/project clearance
(a) Site Clearance :
Site clearance will be given for site specific projects as mentioned in para-2(ii) of
the notification. Project proponents will be required to furnish information according to
the environmental appraisal questionnaires for site clearance, as may be prescribed by the
IAA from time to time. Additional information whenever required by the IAA will be
communicated immediately to the project proponents who will then be required to furnish
the same within the time frame specified.
(b) Project clearance :
In addition to the application form as mentioned in Schedule II to the notification,
project proponents are required to furnish the following information for environmental
- (i) EIA/EMP report (20 copies);
- (ii) Risk Analysis report (20 copies) : however, such reports if normally not required
for a particular category of project, project proponents can state so accordingly, but the
IAAs decision in this regard will be final;
- (iii) NOC from the State Pollution Control Board;
- (iv) Commitment regarding availability of water and electricity from the competent
- (v) Summary of Project report/feasibility report (one copy);
- (vi) Filled in questionnaire (as prescribed by the IAA from time to time) for
environmental appraisal of the project;
- (vii) Comprehensive rehabilitation plan, if more than 1000 people are likely to be
displaced, otherwise a summary plan would be adequate.
As a Comprehensive EIA report will normally take at least one year for its preparation,
project proponents may furnish Rapid EIA report to the IAA based on one season data (other
than monsoon), for examination of the project. Comprehensive EIA report may be submitted
later, if so asked for by the IAA.
The requirement of EIA can be dispensed with by the IAA, in case of project which are
unlikely to cause significant impacts on the environment. In such cases, project proponent
will have to furnish full justification for such exemption, for submission of EIA. Where
such exemption is granted, project proponents may be asked to furnish such additional
information as may be required.
6. Submission of insufficient or inadequate data
Regarding cases liable to be rejected due to inadequacy of data, it is clarified that
the IAA will make such rejection within 30 days from the date of submission of the
proposal. While rejecting a proposal due to insufficient or inadequate data after the
first evaluation, the IAA may also stipulate additional requirement of
information/clarification for impact assessment purposes if deemed essential due to the
specific nature of location of the proposed project whose data as prescribed is not
available, the IAA can examine the project on the basis of available data.
7. Application Form
- (i) In order to remove any hardship to the project proponent in providing any
information, the project proponent may, where some information is not available or would
cause inordinate delay, mention this in their application form. The IAA may consider the
project proposal based on the information available.
- (ii) Quality and quantity of ground water
- (iii) If 15 years data on the quantity and quality variation of ground water is not
available with the concerned Department or Authorities, the project proponent may mention
this accordingly in the application form prescribed in Schedule-II to the notification.
Further, in case of projects, where ground water is not to be used, and effluents are not
to be discharged on the land, the requirement of ground water variation data for the
previous 15 years will be dispensed with.
- (iv) A project proponent may write the words "Not Applicable" while filling
the application form as mentioned in Schedule-II to the notification in respect of items
which are not relevant for the purposes of the proposed project.
8. Exemption for projects already initiated
For projects listed in Schedule-I to the notification in respect of which the required
land has been acquired and all relevant clearances of the State Government including NOC
from the respective State Pollution Control Boards have been obtained before 27th
January, 1994, a project proponent will not be required to seek environmental clearance
from the IAA. However those units who have not as yet commenced production will inform the
No. Z-12013/14/98 IA-I
Government of India
MInistry of Environment and Forests
April 22, 1998
Sub: Prospecting and Exploration of Major Minerals in the areas above 500 ha.-
Site clearance under EIA notification No. S.O.60(E) dated 27th January, 1994 as amended
on4th May, 1994 and 10th April, 1997 -Clarifications reg.
The question of site clearence for projects involving aerial reconnaissance/aerial
surveys for prospection or reconnaissance operations undertaken for preliminary
prospecting has been examined. It was noted that these operation do not include pitting,
trenching, drilling or sub surface excavation involving disturbance to earth.
It is hereby clarified that for aerial prospection surevys/aerial reconnaissance, which
do not include pitting, trenching, drilling or subsurface excavation involving disturbance
to earth, no prior site clearance is required under EIA Notification dated 27th January,
1994 (as amended from time to time). However, site clearance has to be obtained before
undertaking ground operations like pitting, trenching, drilling, road construction etc.
leading to disturbance to earth in specific areas for exploration of minerals. In this
respect the normal procedure in force will mutatis mutandis apply.
- (R. H. KHWAJA)
- Joint Secretary to the Government of India
To All Concerned
No. Z-12013/14/98 IA
Government of India
MInistry of Environment and Forests
October 27, 1998
Sub: Prospecting and Exploration of Major Minerals in the areas above 500 ha.-
Site clearance under EIA notification No. S.O.60(E) dated 27th January 1994 as amended on
2.5.94 and 10.4.87. -Clarifications reg.
The question of sale clearence for mining projects involving surveys for
prospecting or reconnaissance operations undertaken for preliminary prospecting has been
noted that test drilling exercise for confirmation of mineralization in the already
identified anomalies involves on an average one bore hole in a block approximately 100
square kilometers (10000 ha.).
It is hereby clarified that for test drilling on a scale not exceeding one
bore hole hundred square kilometers, no prior site clearence including public hearing is
needed under the provision of the EIA notification of January, 1994 as amended from time
to time. However, necessary approval under the Forest(Conservation) Act, 1980 has to be
obtained in case of involvement of forestland.
Site clearence, however, has to be obtained before undertaking prospecting
and exploration exercise. In this respect, the normal procedure in force will mutatis
- (V. RAJAGOPALAN)
- Joint Secretary to the Government of India
To All Concerned
Government of India
Ministry of Environment & Forests
March 16, 1999
SUB : Prospecting and Exploration of Major Minerals in the areas above 500 ha. Site
clearance under EIA notification No. S.O. 60(E) dated 27th January, 1994 as
amended on 4-5-94 and 10-4-97 Clarification reg.
Attention is invited to this Ministrys Circular of even no Dated 27th
October 98 on the above subject regarding test drilling and site clearance.
It has been brought to the notice of the Ministry that in large areas more than one
anornaly has been noticed and therefore, one bore hole will not give the clear picture in
regard to the true potential. Finely the testing of the material obtained from one
borehole may not give the correct picture of the grade and the size of the deposit. This
may result in deposits with good potential and viable economic size escaping
identification. A thorough and systematic scout-drilling program will improve the chances
of finding mineral deposits within a realistic timeframe.
In view of the above, it is clarified that test drilling on a scale not exceeding 5
bore holes per 100 square kilometers would require to prior site clearance including
public hearing, under and provision of EIA Notification of January 94 as amended
from time to time. However necessary approval under Forest Conservation ACT, 1989 would
have to be obtained in case forest land is involved.
Site clearance has to be obtained before undertaken prospecting and exploration
exercises in this respect, the normal procedure in force will mutatis mutandis apply.
Joint Secretary to the Government of India
To All Concerned